Treatment of Titles
1. Titles of books, journals, magazines, plays, newspapers, and freestanding publications are italicized when quoted in text or bibliography. Always preserve original spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, and punctuation.
David McCullough’s best selling biography, John Adams, was recently made into a television mini-series.
She receives most of her news from Time magazine and the New York Times.
- Ampersands can be changed to and with editorial discretion.
2. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, and shorter works are set in roman type and enclosed with quotation marks. If quotation marks are used in the original titles, then single quotation marks must be substituted.
3. Titles of book series or editions are capitalized, but not italicized.
4. When referring to parts of a book: preface, foreword, appendix, chapter, etc., use lowercase.
5. For attribution format as follows:
#11 best town in the nation to go stargazing
1. Titles of movies, television, and radio shows are italicized. A single episode is enclosed in quotation marks.
2. Formal names of broadcast channels and networks are capitalized.
The Discovery channels offer a variety of programs from health to the environment.
She often watches the Oxygen and Comedy Central channels.
1. The names of operas and musicals are italicized. Individual songs and arias are set in quotation marks.
Handel’s Messiah includes the well-known “Hallelujah” chorus.
“Oh, What a Beautiful Morning” is performed in the opening scene of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical, Oklahoma!
2. Album/CD recording names are italicized. Individual songs are set in quotation marks.
3. Instrumental music such as symphonies, quartets, rhapsodies, etc., that also include a number or key signature in the title should be capitalized, but not italicized. Descriptive titles of the same work can be italicized.
Note: The number (no.) or opus (op.) of the work should remain lowercase.
Beethoven’s Symphony no. 3; or Third Symphony; or Eroica Symphony
Chopin’s Nocturne in E-flat Major
Etude in G Minor, op. 33
1. Treat a reference website as you would an authoritative book or other source material: italicize.
2. Always omit the http://www; it’s unnecessary and clutters your text.
For more information on how to format a website see the Addresses page.
1. Names of paintings, sculptures, and statues are italicized.
2. Photographs are set in quotation marks.
3. Cartoons and comic strips are italicized.