Insulin, a medication used to treat diabetes, is temperature-sensitive and has a short shelf life. It can be stored unopened for up to a year, but once opened, it must be used within weeks or even days. Because insulin is made up of proteins suspended in a water-based solution that facilitates its delivery and preservation, if… Read more
National Institutes of Health
Evolutionary biologists have long puzzled over how new traits emerge in nature, largely because much of the evolutionary information available is from the distant past. To learn more about how genes influence evolution, these researchers study organism phenotypes—the observable characteristics of an organism that are influenced by genetics and environment—and… Read more
St. Lawrence Island, just south of the Bering Strait in Arctic Alaska, is one of the most isolated places on the planet. Wild, mountainous and remote, the island is inhabited by 1,600 indigenous Yupik Eskimos who subsist by hunting and fishing.
Although the island’s natural environment may appear pristine, residents are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants—toxic chemicals that remain in the environment for many years. Residents are concerned… Read more
Native Americans have the lowest rate of university enrollment and graduation rates of any group in the United States—and in STEM fields, they represent only 0.5 percent of students nationwide. Another major hurdle for Native American populations is health-related. Those living on tribal lands experience a disproportionate rate of environmentally-associated health issues such as cancer,… Read more