Characterizing the Concentrations of Uranium in the Brain, Tongue, and the Masseter Muscle of Sheep Grazing in Eagar, AZ Accordion Closed
Cordell Chee, Jani Ingram, Ph.D
In the 1940’s, uranium was discovered in the northern region of Arizona, majority of which was located on the Navajo Reservation, which is about the size of West Virginia. The United States federal government mined and milled uranium ore. In 1968, multiple mining sites were abandoned with no remediation. Health issues and concerns arose, the community members were concerned with contamination of uranium and other heavy metal analyses on the internal organs, muscles, bones, hooves and wool of ten sheep purchased from Cameron and Leupp in Arizona, located on the Navajo Reservation. Recently, five additional sheep were purchased from Eagar, Arizona. Eagar is approximately 100 miles southeast of the Navajo Reservation and has not been affected by mining or milling, therefore the sheep will serve as a control. The purpose of this research is to characterize the concentrations of naturally occurring uranium contamination in the brain, tongue, and the masseter muscle (cheek muscle) of a sheep grazing in Eagar.
An Evidence Based Approach to Community Gardens and Healthy Eating Education Accordion Closed
Charmayne Gene, Alejandra Figueroa, Cindy Beckett, NAH
For community members living in Salina, does nutrition education in conjunction with a community garden as compared to current consumption of fast food options impact eating choices over the next 6 months. The Navajo Reservation has many barriers to healthy eating and consuming healthy food which is affected by many cases of diabetes and chronic diseases. Initial evidences suggest that community gardening can help improve health by planting vegetables and fruits. My study is an Evidence Based Practice Project. Evidence Based Practice is a problem solving approach to clinical practice that integrates the conscientious use of the best evidence in combination with a clinician’s expertise as well as a patient preferences and values to make decisions about what type of care that is provided. The setting is Salina Springs Community. The measures is the availability of healthy food to the community. Working with the community to create a sustainable community garden and provide nutrition education to promote healthy eating. For my analysis I will be giving out pre/post surveys on healthy eating choices. The outcomes is to have a sustained community garden and educational resources for healthy eating food options. By providing education/resources on healthy food options and the community garden, community members will have increased options for healthy eating. We acknowledge NAH and Bridges Program for supporting and funding my project.
Substance abuse and Behavioral health with Native American adolescents Accordion Closed
Lynelle Maloney, Julie Baldwin, Applied Research and Development, NAU
We have conducted a thorough literature review of relevant studies, providing a complete overview of the substance use disparities among Native American youth and the contributing factors to these disparities. We highlight the systematic barriers to implementation of projects and offer future directions that can and should put the youths of our Tribal Nations first. The value is to reduce substance abuse disparities in Native American youth by finding better ways to merge traditional Native practices with western behavioral health to ensure cultural competency.
Objective Evaluation of Differences between Individuals with Functional Ankle Instability and Ankle Sprain Copers: A Pilot Study Accordion Closed
Amber Sheen, Taylor Carlson, Tarang Jain
Ankle sprain is an extremely common orthopedic injury that occur in active individuals. Most individuals recover completely following an ankle sprain, however some individuals often suffer repeated injury and a feeling of the ankle ‘giving away’ (functional ankle instability-FAI). Why some individuals with ankle sprain develop instability and others recover well (i.e. copers) is not well understood. The current understanding on the differences in clinically important outcome measures between individuals who develop FAIL and who recover well following an ankle sprain (coper) is limited. To examine the pathophysiological mechanism FAI after sprain injuries through ankle joint ligamentous laxity, proprioceptive deficiencies and peroneal muscle weakness in individuals with FAI and determine differences with ankle sprain copers in a cross-sectional study design. Individuals with FAI (n=9) and ankle sprain copers (n=8) between the age ranges of 18-45 years. The pilot study compared the ankle joint laxity, proprioception deficits, and peroneal muscular response time in individuals with FAI and ankle sprain copers on their most affected limb. The potential FAI variables were assessed using a KIN-COM dynamometer. In addition, the Cumberland Ankle sprain Instability Tool (CAIT) questionnaire was used to discriminate and measure the level of self-reported disability. The data analysis is in progress and will be presented at the conference. The results of this pilot study can have a significant positive impact not only on the people with FAI, but also on the understanding of researchers and clinicians involved with FAI prevention and rehabilitation.
Identifying oncomir microRNA-27 a polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer in Native Americans Accordion Closed
Joshelle Tsinnijinnie, Jason Wilder, Ph.D
Prostate cancer is the second leading cancer in men, and the aggressiveness and mortality rate following diagnosis is higher in Native American (NA) populations compared to other ethnicities. We are focused on the genetic differences affecting the oncomir microRNA-27a (miR-27a) among ethnic groups to help elucidate the role of genetics as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Primers were designed to amplify the miR-27a pre-miRNA in 39 Native American individuals. The PCR product of selected NA samples were sequenced using Sanger sequencing at the University of Arizona Genetics Core in Tucson, Arizona. Resulting sequences were analyzed using Sequencher software and the two single polymorphic sites were identified as rs895819 and rs764547746. rs895819 allelic frequencies vary across different populations such as American(T=0.62, C=0.38), African(T=0.52, C=0.48) and European (T=0.68, C=0.32). The calculated allelic frequencies of the Native American populations are T=0.75, C=0.25. rs764547746 is vert rare worldwide, and occurs only once in our Native American sample. We hypothesize that one or both of these SNP’s may influence processing of the pre-miRNA to mature miRNA molecules, thus influencing expression of oncogenic miR-27a. We will test this hypothesis by examining patterns of allele-specific miR-27a expression in transfected prostate cancer cells. Differential expression of these miRNA may indicate that the polymorphism affects the processing of miR-27a and may also influence prostate cancer risk.
Effectiveness of a Fruit and Vegetable Voucher Program in a Pediatric Obesity Treatment and Prevention Program Accordion Closed
Jessica Tree, Taylor Lane, MA, Sherry Walka, FNP-C, Erin Rudin, BS, Dirk DeHeer, MPH, PhD
Fit kids is a clinical pediatric obesity treatment and prevention program in Northern Arizona. Children with a BMI > 95th percentile, or any other elevated health measurements, such as high blood glucose levels, are eligible. Most participating families experience substantial barriers to healthy lifestyles, including being able to purchase healthy foods. Several voucher programs facilitate healthy food intake exist, but none have been tested out in a pediatric obesity program. The purpose of this project was to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of a fruit and vegetable voucher program. Families receive $8 vouchers each visit to purchase fruits and vegetables at Safeway, Fry’s, or Sprouts. Measures include BMI percentile, clinical measures, and fruit and vegetable intake (visually and by checklist). Families show receipts of their purchases. All data is recorded in Excel. Average baseline BMI percentile was 96.70 (SD=3.7), which improved 0.1% at follow-up. At follow-up, 42 children has a reduced BMI percentile, 5 saw no change, and 25 increased. Greater improvements were seen in BMI as kids received more gift cards; as number of gift cars received increases, BMI percentile decreases (r=-0.17). The average number of cards received was 2.6 (SD=1.8). The 7 most commonly bought fruits and vegetables were strawberries (46.4%), banana (43.6%), oranges (42.7%), avocado (36.4%), cucumber (35.5%), red apple (39.9%), and carrots (29.1%). Within high-risk families participating in a voucher program, we’ve seen modest improvements in children’s BMI, especially children who have received more than one gift card.