An evidence-based approach to domestic violence workshops for Navajo Nation Accordion Closed
Lillian Bedonie, Cindy Beckett, PhD RNC-OB, LCCE
Does providing the Navajo Nation law enforcement providers and community members comprehensive domestic violence prevention training as compared to current practices of incident management only impact domestic violence occurrences and outcomes within a 12-month period? Currently, there are limited to no training provided for law enforcement and healthcare providers. There are no refresher courses or awareness offered on the subject. After reviewing the literature on domestic violence and sexual assault, there are programs offered nationwide for prevention and treatment and all that is needed is to implement this into training programs for Navajo Nation. Handing out information, creating awareness and intervention programs can create a difference. Creating a classroom setting with presentations through power point and videos can be helpful but also intertwining that with role play and case studies can help law enforcement and healthcare officials with a better understanding. Through this research, descriptive statistics and Pre and Post tests will be used to evaluate the efficiency of the program. My hope for this project is to help providers gain a better understanding and to have empathy for victims and to not only give awareness through a job setting but also community awareness. Recommendations for this project would be to create an annual refreshment course and to eventually create a community involved program to educate on domestic violence and sexual assault and to create prevention/intervention programs.
Characterization of temporal sediment cores from San Juan River after the Gold King Mine spill Accordion Closed
Kurt Benally, Adam Settimo, Jani C. Ingram, PhD
The Gold King Mine spill occurred August 5, 2015 and contaminated the Animas River which then led to the possible heavy metal contamination of the San Juan River on the Navajo Reservation. The purpose of this study is to measure the levels of lead, arsenic, and manganese in sediment collected from the San Juan River, to see if these elements are present above background levels and if these levels have changed over time. The sampling for this project was initiated in November 2015, four months after the spill. Additionally, sampling was done in March 2016 and June 2016. Sample collection consisted of sediment cores and water samples from the San Juan River, agriculture soil samples from the agricultural fields as well as water from canals that service the farms. The sediment core samples were collected using PVC pipe 2 feet length. After collection, the sediment cores samples were placed in tightly sealed plastic containers and transported to Flagstaff campus and stored at 4º C. To prepare the sediment samples for analysis, the soils were removed from the PVC pipes and cataloged. Samples were dried for a minimum of 5 days in the lab, one-inch top and bottom subsamples were placed in separate plastic bags for storage and labeled. The samples were sifted, split in 2 mm particle size and 1mm particle size for the top soil and bottom soil. The 2 mm bag particles were microwave digested and the 1 mm bag particles were milled; the two samples will be acid digested. Finally, the samples will be analyzed by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometer for levels of lead, arsenic, and manganese. The results will be compared.
Effect of bar height on accuracy of unloading with the AlterG anti-gravity treadmill Accordion Closed
Wyatt Betony, Hendrik “Dirk” de Heer, Brian Kinslow, Chris Repka
Introduction: The AlterG Antigravity Treadmill can assist in the rehabilitation of various injuries by allowing patients to walk or run with lower impact forces. The frame support bar of the AlterG can be place at nine possible different heights, and inconsistent placement of the frame support bar during setup could affect the amount of support given to the user. No studies have systematically assessed the impact of bar height placement on the amount of support provided by the AlterG.
Hypothesis: A lower bar height will provide less support than indicated, and a higher bar height will provide a greater amount of support.
Methods: Subjects were weighed outside the treadmill on a portable Tanita 679W scale, and then weighed again inside the treadmill at various percentages of bodyweight with the frame support bar at three different heights: 1) at the greater trochanter as recommended by the Alter G user manual; 2) measured one slot above the recommended height; 3) measured one slot below the recommended height.
Results: Based on a pilot study of two subjects, the AlterG provides more support with the frame bar higher, and less with the frame bar lower, with a larger difference when the bar frame is moved down. At one slot higher the Alter G provided an additional 1.7% support and at one slot lower, the Alter G provided 6.7% less support.
Conclusion: Frame bar height should be considered as a relevant factor in the clinical setup of the AlterG.
An evidence-based approach to preventing type 2 diabetes on the Navajo Nation Accordion Closed
Atheina Claw, Cindy Beckett, PhD RNC-OB, LCCE, CHRC
In Navajo adolescents with Type 2 prediabetes, how does inactivity compare to preventative steps to healthy choices in diet and fitness affect the prevention of Type 2 diabetes? With limited access to better options of healthy foods, lack of community education about the development and long-term effects of Diabetes, and few programs to increase physical activity contribute to Type 2 Diabetes on the Navajo Nation. To find the best approach to prevent adolescents from developing diabetes, I evaluated literature using Evidence-Based Practice, a problem solving approach to the best clinical practices. Additionally, I conducted telephone interviews with educators on the Navajo Nation and shadowed the Diabetes Specialist at Northern Arizona Healthcare. This led me to incorporate an Educational Intervention approach. An Education Intervention approach will generate a concrete foundation by focusing ways to prevent Diabetes in teaching the community how to create their own gardens, incorporating traditional food recipes and understanding of holistic healing approaches. Creating a pre-test and post-test will demonstrate the effectiveness of how these implemented interventions were received by Navajo adolescents. An evaluation sheet at the end of teaching presentations will communicate to educators about how well participants understand the material. Ideally, outcomes would include more involvement from the Navajo Nation Leaders encouraging parent and child participation in the aforementioned activities. Our results recommend collaboration with the Navajo Nation Special Diabetes Program and Running for a Stronger & Healthier Navajo Nation program to motivate adolescents in being active.
A qualitative examination of facilitators and barriers addressing behavioral health needs among Native Americans in Coconino County Accordion Closed
Colette Davis, Julie Baldwin, PhD
Native American populations are at high risk for behavioral health issues such as substance use and comorbid mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and suicide ideation. To address these and other health disparities, the Health Equity Research Group at Northern Arizona University is conducting a regional community health needs and assets assessment. My internship focuses on assisting the team in identifying behavioral health concerns and solutions for Native American populations in Coconino County. By using a qualitative research approach, such as focus groups and interviews with health care providers, community leaders, and community members, we are determining the perceived health needs and priorities of people in Northern Arizona. Our visioning groups thus far have indicated that better access to mental health services and health insurance and improving linguistic and cultural approaches using a more holistic approach will help to address the gaps concerning substance abuse and mental illness. I have also identified current behavioral health programs in Coconino County that meet best practice standards. Our results highlight the importance of Native American communities taking ownership in the development of culturally relevant, community-based mental illness, and substance abuse prevention programs.
Characterization of lead, arsenic and manganese in sediment samples from the Gold King Mine spill Accordion Closed
Christelle Holyan, Adam Settimo, Jani Ingram, PhD
On August 5, 2015, approximately 3 million gallons of acid drainage from the Gold King Mine in Silverton, Colorado released into the Animas River. The Animas River connects with the San Juan River, which runs through the Northern Navajo Nation where communities use the watershed to irrigate their agricultural crops. As a result of this accident, this project was initiated to focus on the deposition of the heavy metals from this spill and its effect on the quality of the crops. To test the deposition of the heavy metals in the river sediment, we obtained sediment core samples from the San Juan River. After river sediment cores are collected, they are extracted from the PVC pipes. The sediment cores are measured and recorded by the full core. We then take the top and bottom inch of the core to analyze. These samples are dried, sifted through a 2-millimeter sieve, digested by microwave radiation, centrifuged, and extracted using nitric acid. We then analyze processed samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry which traces the heavy metals. We quantitatively measure the levels of lead, arsenic, and manganese in sediment samples collected at the surface and two feet deep to determine if the depositions of the metals are similar throughout the sediment core. This project is an important step in determining if agricultural crops in the Northern Navajo Nation are contaminated from the deposition of the heavy metals from the Gold King Mine.
Physical activity in Navajo cancer survivors Accordion Closed
Jenille Montelongo-Rodriguez, Hendrik ‘Dirk’ de Heer, MPH, PhD, Brian Kinslow, BS,SPT, Chris Repka, PhD
Introduction: Native Americans have the lowest five-year cancer survival rate of any group in the US.
Studies have shown that physical activity can help improve the survivor’s quality of life, physical functions, reduce fatigue and risk of recurrence. No studies about exercise in cancer survivors have been done with the Navajo.
Purpose: To evaluate what programs and resources Navajo cancer survivors need to improve health and quality of life and reduce recurrence risk
Methods: A literature review about Native Americans, physical activity, and cancer was conducted. Additionally, interviews and focus groups with 34 Navajo cancer survivors and 5 family members (16 males, 23 females, average age 56 years old) were done to assess current physical activity habits, barriers, and preferences.
Outcomes: The most common cancers were cancers of the colon (30%), breast (27%), gallbladder/gastric (13%), reproductive system (10%) and other (20%). The qualitative data illustrated that late diagnosis was common, challenges with access to care in rural areas and a general lack of Navajo speaking providers. Survivors reported a wide variability in activity levels, and limited knowledge about the appropriateness and intensity of physical activity during and after treatment. Walking was the most commonly reported preferred activity, and 85% reported to prefer exercise with a group (50%) or either with a group or alone (35%).
Clinical Relevance/Next Steps: A clinically appropriate and culturally sensitive physical activity program was developed based on these findings. These findings will be pilot tested among a small group of Navajo cancer survivors.
Identifying microRNA-27 polymorphisms in Native Americans Accordion Closed
Joshelle Tsinnijinnie, Jason Wilder, PhD, Kathleen Freel, and Kristi Mascarenas
Prostate cancer affects the prostate gland of the male reproductive system. It is the second leading cancer in men, and the mortality rate is higher in Native American populations compared to other ethnicities. There are many factors that contribute to prostate cancer risk such as genetic factors, age, ethnicity, cultural diet, lifestyle, and the distance from the nearest hospital. Knowing about these disparities helps to understand the progression and treatment of prostate cancer. The relative importance of these disparities is not well understood, and this research will focus on the genetic differences of the oncomir microRNA-27 (miR-27) between ethnic groups to help elucidate the role of genetics as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Specifically, we are screening a total of 40 Native American samples to identify polymorphisms of miR-27, which may affect its processing and function, and therefore risk of prostate cancer. Genetic variation of miR-27 has not been examined previously in Native American populations. With the primers that we have designed, we will amplify the region of the gene, and perform Sanger sequencing. Finally, we will test whether observed variants affect miR-27 using bioinformatics tools. Results are pending however, we have successfully amplified other oncogenes and the miR-27 cluster. Discovery of population-specific miR-27 polymorphisms may elucidate the disparity in prostate cancer mortality within Native Americans.
Parent involvement in Hopi youth weight-loss Accordion Closed
Jasmine Benally, Ann Collier, PhD
American Indian youth are at risk for obesity, and it is appropriate to focus youth and their family environments so that healthy behaviors can be initiated early, instilled, and valued into adulthood. The Hopi community have seen an increase in weight gain; because of this, the Hopi tribal affiliates have decided to get involved. Be Hopi Be Healthy is a 1-month intervention that is focused on promoting a healthy lifestyle and to achieve a healthy weight within the Hopi youth and community. There will be parent nights in which parents of the attendee will come and learn about what their child has been learning. We will be helping to screen the kids such as getting their demographics, waist measurements, height and helping with a body fat monitor scale. We will be inputting the results in a program called Redcap. Our research is looking at how well the child whose parent(s) go to the parent night do in the camp throughout the month in relation to the child whose parents don’t go to those parent nights. I believe that the more the parent is involved with the child’s physical health, the better the child has of getting positive results.
Antimicrobial effects of essential oils Accordion Closed
Deionna Vigil, Fernando P. Monroy, PhD
Some natural oils extracted from plants and herbs known as essential oils (EO) demonstrate antimicrobial properties. We tested the antimicrobial effects of EO’s (garlic, basil, peppermint, and tea tree) [The Lebermuth Company, IN] against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Burkholderia thailandensis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxic effect of these oils on eukaryotic cells was also investigated. Bacteria were grown in LB media and adjusted to inoculate 105 CFU/well. In a 96 well plate, bacteria were incubated in dilutions of EO mix (LB media, 10% DMSO) and spot plated at three time points (1, 3, and 6 hr) to assess growth. Eukaryotic cells were incubated in a similar EO mix (DMEM media, 10% DMSO) and cytotoxic effect was calculated using the LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific) after 1 and 3 hr of exposure to EO’s. At a 2.5% concentration, peppermint and tea tree oil killed 100% of MRSA, S. aureus, and B. thailandensis, while tea tree also killed 100% of P. aeruginosa. Garlic oil demonstrated bacteriostatic properties against all of the bacteria, while basil oil killed B. thailandensis and slowed the growth of S. aureus, but was ineffective against the other bacteria at all time points. When EO’s were tested at a 2.5% concentration on eukaryotic cells for 3 hr our results showed garlic 40%, basil 24%, peppermint 12%, and tea tree 17% cytotoxic effect on skin cells. These results suggest that EO’s are effective in slowing or killing a wide variety of medically important bacteria and their potential as active ingredients in antimicrobial preparations warrants further examination.