Gestational diabetes Accordion Closed
Ashleigh Goodell, Cynthia Beckett
An evidence based practice (EBP) approach was used to conduct my research. EBP is a method that enables clinicians to provide the highest quality of care in meeting the complex needs of their patients and families. It is the meticulous use of current best evidence in making decisions about patient care. It is defined by Melnyk and Overhault (2015) as, “a problem solving approach to ‘clinical’ practice that integrates the conscientious use of best evidence in combinations with a ‘clinicians’ expertise as well as ‘customer’ preference and values to make decisions about the type of intervention/plan that’s provided.”
PICOT: In pregnant women with gestational diabetes, does the use of a diabetic specific education as compared to general information on diet and exercise affect the number of babies born with complications such as being too large and immature.
This project explores how the creation of a culturally sensitive comprehensive education program for pregnant women can provide optimal care in helping patients prevent, manage, and understand gestational diabetes, and the possible adverse outcomes.
Human dermal fibroblasts, neonatal (HDFn) Accordion Closed
Brittney Hornsby, Aaron Tabor
Human Dermal Fibroblasts, neonatal (HDFn) produce the extracellular matrix which forms the connective tissue of the skin. HDFn cells are crucial to wound healing as they synthesize collagen during the production of the extracellular matrix. When a wound is inflicted, the dermal fibroblasts are recruited to the wound bed where angiogenesis is initiated. To replicate a dermal wound, I grew HDFn cells in a 6 well plate with a 90% cellular confluence as required for an in Vitro wound assay. The purpose of the wound assay was to gain understanding in cellular tissue growth, tissue replication and regeneration, and an overview of the wound healing response. It was concluded that although collagen is a key component to wound healing, increasing the concentration of it does not expedite the closure of the wound when compared to the control.
Uranium contamination in soft tissues of sheep Accordion Closed
Carl Haskie, Andee Lister, Jani Ingram
Uranium is a naturally occurring element that is known to increase cancer risk and liver damage when ingested. Uranium mining was conducted on the Navajo Nation from the 1940s to the late 1980s. As a result of the aforementioned mining, there are over 500 abandoned and contaminated mining sites on the Navajo Nation. 1The purpose of this research is to quantify the amount of uranium in the soft tissues and meat of the sheep grazing on abandoned uranium mines and to identify which meats and soft tissues accumulate the most uranium, as sheep are a major food source in the Navajo community. The meats and organ samples discussed in the analysis were dried, powdered, incinerated, acidified, and analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Additionally, the analysis will focus on comparing samples collected from areas where uranium mining was conducted with samples collected from areas where no uranium mining took place.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to establish a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for uranium, so it is still unclear exactly how much uranium concentration is toxic.
Physical activity and cancer among Native American cancer survivors: a pilot study Accordion Closed
Shauntey Cleveland, Pearl Nez, Etta Yazzie, Luis Valdez, Mark Lee, Kaitlyn Haskie, Shelby Dalgai Dirk DeHeer, Jennifer Bea
Background: Studies have shown that physical activity in cancer survivorship can lead to improved quality of life and disease free survival,particularly for colorectal and breast cancer. Relatively moderate amounts of physical activity may be needed, such as walking 30 minutes daily at 2.5 miles per hour.None of these studies, however, were focused on Native American cancer survivors.
Objective: To conduct focus groups and interviews with Navajo cancer survivors to learn about their exercise beliefs, preferences, barriers and interest in a cancer survivor physical activity program.
Methods: Focus groups and individual interviews with Navajo cancer survivors in an urban and rural setting were conducted, led by an experienced bilingual (Navajo & English) focus group leader. Audio recordings of conversations were translated and transcribed in full. Software for qualitative data analysis (NVIVO) was used to summarize major themes.
Preliminary Findings: Overall, participants believed that physical activity was important for improving health during and following cancer treatment. Several factors that may adversely influence engaging in physical activity included: 1) a feeling of separation from their social network, in part due to lack of knowledge about cancer among family members and others; 2) fatigue and temporary activity limitations related to treatment; 3) lack of communication between healthcare personnel and cancer patients about post-treatment appropriateness of timing, duration and intensity of activity; and 4) resource limitations. Patients expressed a strong desire to improve health, and activity preferences expressed favored outdoor activity and walking interventions.
Conclusion: In order to increase and maintain an active lifestyle, a community-based program tailored to meet the needs for Navajo cancer patients is essential. A setting which combines easily accessible and affordable ways to engage in moderate physical activity with social support appears preferable. In addition, education for caregivers about cancer and its treatment may be needed.
Speech intervention for children with speech delay Accordion Closed
Thomie Begay, Cynthia Beckett
Evidence-Based Practice is a problem solving approach to clinical practice that integrates the conscientious use of best evidence in combination with a clinician’s expertise as well as patient preferences and values to make decisions about the type of care that’s provided. The first step process that provides direction for search strategy uses PICOT format that is asking a clinical question with searchable and answerable research findings. In preschool children with speech delay (P), does integrated speech therapy (I), as compared to having a classroom aid (C), affect their ability to clearly state words and communicate (O) by the end of the school year. (T) Children with speech delay practice repetition exercises using play therapy strategies from someone who is trained like a speech therapist, a teacher, parents, and classroom aids in supportive environments at regular meetings that consistently reinforces activities with a fun and disciplinary education plan. The tools and activities are not to punish the child, but to engage and improve the child to success and see if the child will progress quicker with confidence and be able to clearly communicate verbally.
Role of ethanol in macrophages with pseudomonas aeruginosa infection Accordion Closed
Wayne Nez, Holly Tiffany, Fernando Monroy
Alcohol consumption has been associated with a suppressive effect on the human immune system and an increased susceptibility to infection with pulmonary pathogens. Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in preventing infection by capturing and removing pathogens from the lung environment. For this study, we used mouse alveolar macrophages and the opportunistic Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa to determine the effects of alcohol on the ability of macrophages to control infection in vitro. We hypothesized that alcohol would alter macrophage phagocytic function and minimize the ability to control a P. aeruginosa infection. Growth curves generated in the presence of varying concentrations of alcohol in Luria-Bertoni (LB) broth showed that, P. aeruginosa growth was only affected at 500 and 1000mM alcohol concentration. Conversely, alveolar macrophages viability was decreased by 10% at concentrations of 25 and 100 mM alcohol. To determine macrophage function, alveolar macrophages were activated with 600 U/ml interferon (IFN)-g, followed by a 3 h incubation in 25mM ethanol media. The cell monolayer was then infected with the bacteria at a 1:1 ratio. Nitric oxide concentrations were determined by Griess test at 2, 4, and 6h post infection. At 2 and 6 hr. post-infection, macrophages were then lysed to measure the survivability of the engulfed bacteria. Furthermore, cell lysates were centrifuged and viable bacteria grown on LB spread plates.. Nitric oxide production increased at 2 hr., with a peak at 4 hr., and a dramatic decrease at 6 hr. post-infection. Moreover, an acute ethanol exposure decreased macrophage phagocytosis at 6 h that resulted in more viable bacteria detected in colony forming units on LB spread plates compared to the non-alcoholic control. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol exposure has a deleterious effect on macrophages ability to effectively perform phagocytosis which can described as a risk factor for lung infections in chronic alcohol users.
Experiencing foster parenting and community outreach Accordion Closed
Colleen Wauneka, Carol Goldtooth, Vicki Black
For the summer I have had the privilege to work with two mentors. Vicki Black, PhD, RN, is a professor and the Director of the American Indian Nursing program at NAU and a new foster parent for two medically fragile babies. I have shadowed her and these two babies to pediatrician visits, vision specialists, neurologists, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and water therapy services for these babies. The experience led me to wonder about how and what other foster parents experience? When I am not shadowing Dr. Black, I am helping Carol Goldtooth-Begay, MPH, Community Health Liaison and part of the Community Outreach Team in the Partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP). I am assisting the NACP Outreach team with the Community Readiness Model (CRM) that measures attitudes, knowledge, efforts & activities, resources, and leadership of key stakeholders within Native American community members in order to assess their community’s readiness to address issues related to cancer programs and cancer research in the Hopi, Navajo Nation, Flagstaff and Tohono O’odham. Specifically, I have been assisting Hopi with some of the key informant interviews and then transcribing the interviews. These transcriptions will then be reviewed for the common themes about cancer programs and cancer research.
Resiliency amongst American Indian/Alaskan Natives Accordion Closed
Lillian Bedonie, Roger Nosker
Resilience is the ability to handle stress, adversity, and trauma in a positive way both physically and psychologically. It is the resilience of Native Americans that have gotten them through hard times and gave them the ability to adapt to new oncoming events. Culture is the main foundation that keeps American Indian/Alaskan Natives pushing forward and overcoming obstacles thrown at them. From the help of songs and prayers to the traditional dances and ceremonies, Native Americans have had many different aspects to help them keep this resiliency that people most admire and find interesting. There are a lot of examples in resilience in Native American Culture for just about any situation. There are a lot of different meanings for resilience based on how people interpret it. The focus for our study is resilience in adolescents. How they are able to cope with Western Society and learning their traditional ways. Most would refer to this as “living in two worlds”. Culture and the teachings of the elders are one way to promote resilience in the youth of today and there may be other factors of which is being researched. Methods that would be used would to interview these individuals and see how they interpret resilience and what factors in their life may be promoting a positive outlook. This research is ongoing and may never actually reach a definite conclusion considering that people view this topic in many different ways and even then the world is constantly changing thus changing the view of resilience and how it may differ even more than it is now.