Journal articles and book chapters by Gehring Lab members that have been published or are in press are listed below with links to the publisher, when available. Many of these publications are available free of charge through ResearchGate, a social media platform that allows scientists to share their publications and findings. Please email us to request a PDF of any of these publications.


Revillini, D., C.A. Gehring, and N.C. Johnson. The role of locally adapted mycorrhizas and rhizobacteria in plant-soil feedback systems.  FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, in press.

Redmond, M.D., P.J. Weisberg, N.C. Cobb, C.A. Gehring, A.V. Whipple, and T.G. Whitham. A robust method to determine historical annual cone production among slow-growing conifers. FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, in press.

Gehring, C.A, M. Hayer, L. Flores-Rentería, A.L. Krohn, E. Schwartz, and P. Dijkstra.  Cheatgrass invasion alters the abundance and composition of dark septate fungal communities in sagebrush steppe.  BOTANY, in press.


Busby, P.E., L.J. Lamit, A.R. Keith, G. Newcombe, C.A. Gehring, T.G. Whitham, and R. Dirzo. 2015. Genetics-based interactions among plants, pathogens, and herbivores define arthropod community structure. ECOLOGY 96(7): 1974-1984.

Lamit, L.J., M.K. Lau, R. Reese Næsborg, T. Wojtowicz, T.G. Whitham, and C.A. Gehring. 2015. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments. ECOLOGY 96(4) 960-971. DOI: 10.1890/14-1007.1

Lamit, L.J., P.E. Busby, M.K. Lau, Z.G. Compson, T. Wojtowicz, A.R. Keith, M.S. Zinkgraf, J.A. Schweitzer, S.M. Shuster, C.A. Gehring, and T.G. Whitham. 2015. Tree genotype mediates covariance among communities from microbes to lichens and arthropods. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 103(4):840-850. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12416

Hultine, K.R, D. W. Bean, T. L. Dudley and C. A. Gehring. 2015. Species introductions and their cascading impacts on biotic interactions in desert riparian ecosystems. INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY 55(4): 587-601. doi: 10.1093/icb/icv019

Smith, D.S., L.J. Lamit, M.K. Lau, C.A. Gehring, S.M. Shuster, and T.G. Whitham. 2015. Introduced elk alter traits of a native plant and its plant-associated arthropod community. ACTA OECOLOGIA 67:8-16. [ResearchGate]


Wojtowicz, T., Z.C. Compson, L.J. Lamit, T.G. Whitham, and C.A. Gehring. 2014. Plant genetic identity of foundation tree species and their hybrids affect a litter-dwelling generalist predator. OECOLOGIA 176(3): 799-810. doi:10.​1007/​s00442-014-2998-3 

Karst, J., M.J. Randall, and C.A. Gehring. 2014. Consequences for ectomycorrhizal fungi of the selective loss or gain of pine across landscapes. BOTANY 92(12):855-865. doi: 10.1139/cjb-2014-0063

Flores-Rentería, L., M.K. Lau, L.J. Lamit, and C.A. Gehring. 2014. An elusive ectomycorrhizal fungus reveals itself: a new species of Geopora (Pyronemataceae) associated with Pinus edulis. MYCOLOGIA 106(3): 553-563.

Gehring, C.A., R.C. Mueller, K.E. Haskins, T.K. Rubow, and T.G. Whitham. 2014. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought,plant competition, parasitism and susceptibility to herbivory: consequences for fungi and host plants. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 5:306. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00306.

Woolbright, S.A., T.G. Whitham, C.A. Gehring, J.K. Bailey, and G.J. Allan. 2014. Climate relicts and their associated communities as natural ecology and evolution laboratories. TRENDS IN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 29:406-416. [ResearchGate]

Lamit, L.J., M.K. Lau, C.M. Sthultz, S.C. Wooley, T.G. Whitham, and C.A. Gehring. 2014. Tree genotype and genetically based growth traits structure twig endophyte communities. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 101: 467-478.

Gehring, C.A.,B.  Ji, S. Fong, and T.G. Whitham. 2014. Differential feedback effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and other root endophytes in a Populus hybrid system. BOTANY 92:287-293.

Gehring, C.A., D. Flores-Rentería, C.M. Sthultz, T.M. Leonard, L. Flores-Rentería, A.V. Whipple, and T. G. Whitham. 2014. Plant genetics and interspecific competitive interactions determine ectomycorrhizal fungal community responses to climate change. MOLECULAR ECOLOGY 23: 1379-1391.

Fischer, D.G., S.K. Chapman, A.T. Classen, C.A. Gehring, K.C. Grady,  J.A Schweitzer, and T.G. Whitham. 2014. Plant genetic effects on soils under climate change. PLANT AND SOIL 379(1): 1-19.


Ji, B., C.A. Gehring, G.W.T. Wilson, R.M. Miller, L. Flores-Rentería, and N.C. Johnson. 2013. Patterns of diversity and adaptation in Glomeromycota from three prairie grasslands. MOLECULAR ECOLOGY 22:2573-2587

Owen, S.M., C.H. Sieg, N.C. Johnson, and C. A. Gehring. 2013. Exotic cheatgrass and loss of soil biota decrease the performance of a native grass. BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS 15:2503-2517.

Kurth, V. J., N. Fransioli, P.Z. Fulé, S.C. Hart and C.A. Gehring. 2013. Stand-replacing wildfires alter the community structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in southwestern ponderosa pine forests of the U.S. FUNGAL ECOLOGY 6: 192-204.

Krohn, A., L.H. Flores-Rentería, and C. A. Gehring. 2013. Microsatellite primers in the foundation tree species Pinus edulis and Pinus monophylla. APPLICATIONS IN PLANT SCIENCES 1 (8) 2013. DOI:

Flores-Rentería, L., F. Molina-Freaner, A.V. Whipple, C.A. Gehring, and C.A. Dominguez. 2013. Sexual stability in the nearly dioecious Pinus johannis. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 100: 602-612.

Meinhardt, K.A., and C.A. Gehring. 2013. Tamarix and soil ecology. For “Tamarix: A Case Study of Ecological Change in the American West”, A. Sher and M. Quigley, editors, Oxford University Press, 512 pages.


Liu, C.M., S. Kachur, M.G. Dwan, A.G. Abraham, M. Aziz, P-R. Hsueh, H. Yu-Tsung, J.D. Busch, L.J. Lamit, C.A. Gehring, P. Keim, and L.B. Price. 2012. FungiQuant: A broad-coverage fungal quantitative real-time PCR assay. BMC MICROBIOLOGY 12:255-261.

Whitham, T.G., C.A. Gehring, L.J. Lamit, T. Wojtowicz, L.M. Evans, A.R. Keith, D.S. Smith. 2012. Community specificity: the life and afterlife effects of genes. TRENDS IN PLANT SCIENCE 17:271-281.

Meinhardt, K.A., and C.A. Gehring. 2012. Disrupting mycorrhizal mutualisms: a potential mechanism by which exotic tamarisk outcompetes native cottonwoods. ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 22:532-549.

Lamit, L.J., and C.A. Gehring. 2012. Dynamic interplay in a multivariate world: case studies in mycorrhizal and endophytic fungal interactions with herbivores. Pages 185-204, In: Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions, D. Southworth (ed), John Wiley & Sons.


Theimer, T.C., C. A. Gehring, P.T. Green, and J.H. Connell. 2011. Terrestrial vertebrates alter seedling composition and richness but not diversity in an Australian tropical rain forest. ECOLOGY 92(8):1637-1647.

Owen, S.M., C.H. Sieg, and C.A. Gehring. 2011. Seeding with native shrubs and the use of Imazapic herbicide on grazing lands affected by cheatgrass invasion. INVASIVE PLANT SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT JOURNAL 4:223-233.

Lamit, L.J., T. Wojtowicz, Z. Kovacs, S.C. Wooley, M. Zinkgraf, T.G. Whitham, R.L. Lindroth, and C.A. Gehring. 2011. Hybridization among foundation species influences the structure of associated understory plant communities. BOTANY 89:165-174.

Gordon, G.J., and C.A. Gehring. 2011. Molecular characterization of pezizalean ectomycorrhizas associated with pinyon pine during drought. MYCORRHIZA 21:431-441. DOI 10.1007/s00572-010-0349-8

Lamit, L.J., M.A. Bowker, L.M. Holeski, R. Reese Næsborg, S.C. Wooley, M. Zinkgraf, T.G. Whitham, R.L. Lindroth, and C.A. Gehring. 2011. Genetically-based trait variation within a foundation tree species influences a dominant bark lichen. FUNGAL ECOLOGY 4:103-109.


Stone, A.C., C.A. Gehring, and T. G. Whitham. 2010. Drought negatively affects communities on a foundation tree: growth rings predict diversity. OECOLOGIA 164:751-761. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-010-1684-3

Whitham, T. G., C.A. Gehring, L.M. Evans, C.J. LeRoy, R.K. Bangert, J.A. Schweitzer, G.J. Allan, R.C. Barbour, D.G. Fischer, B.M. Potts, and J.K. Bailey. A Community & Ecosystem Genetics Approach to Conservation Biology and Management. 2010. Pages 50-73. In: Molecular Approaches in Natural Resource Conservation and Management. J.A. DeWoody, J.W. Bickham, C. Michler, K. Nichols, O.E. Rhodes, and K. Woeste (eds), Cambridge University Press.

Arnold, A.E., L.J. Lamit, M.I. Bidartondo, C.A. Gehring, and H. Callahan. 2010. Forum: Interwoven branches of the plant and fungal trees of life. NEW PHYTOLOGIST 185:847-848.

Murray, T.R., D.A. Frank, and C.A. Gehring. 2010. Ungulate and topographic control of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore community composition in a temperate grassland. ECOLOGY 91(3):815-827

Hoeksema, J.D., V.B. Chaudhary, C. Gehring, N.C. Johnson, J. Karst, R. Koide, A. Pringle, C. Zabinski, J.D. Bever, J. Moore, G. Wilson, J. Klironomos, and J. Umbanhowar. 2010. A meta-analysis of context-dependency in plant response to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi. ECOLOGY LETTERS 13:394-407.


Sthultz, C.M., T.G. Whitham, K.J. Kennedy, R. Deckert, and C.A. Gehring. 2009. Genetically-based susceptibility to herbivory influences the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of a foundation tree species. NEW PHYTOLOGIST 184:657-667.

Owen, S.M., C.H. Sieg, C.A. Gehring, and M.A. Bowker. 2009. Above- and belowground responses to tree thinning depend on the fate of tree debris. FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 259:71–80.

Sthultz, C.M., C.A. Gehring, and T.G. Whitham. 2009. Deadly combination of genes and drought: Increased mortality of herbivore-resistant trees in a foundation species. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 15: 949-961.

Gehring, C. A., A.E. Bennett. 2009. Invited Review. Mycorrhizal fungal-plant-insect interactions: the importance of a community approach. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY 38:93-102.


Hubert, N.A., and C.A. Gehring. 2008. Neighboring trees affect ectomycorrhizal community composition in a woodland-forest ecotone. MYCORRHIZA, 18:363-374.

Selmants, P.C., S.C. Hart, S.I. Boyle, C.A. Gehring, and B.A. Hungate. 2008. Restoration of a ponderosa pine forest increases soil CO2 efflux more than either water or nitrogen additions. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY 45:913-920.

Theimer, T., and C. Gehring. 2008. Variation in tree seedling and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore responses to the exclusion of terrestrial vertebrates: Implications for how vertebrates structure tropical communities. Pages 294-307 in: Tropical Forest Community Ecology, W. Carson and S. Schnitzer, editors, Blackwell Publishing.


Hungate, B.A., S.C. Hart, P.C. Selmants, S.I. Boyle, and C.A. Gehring. 2007. Soil responses to thinning and burning, increased precipitation, and nitrogen amendment in ponderosa pine forests. ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 17:1352-1365.

Theimer, T.C., and C.A. Gehring. 2007. Mycorrhizal plants and vertebrate seed and spore dispersal: incorporating mycorrhizas into the seed dispersal paradigm. Pages 463-478. In: Frugivory and Seed Dispersal in a Changing World. A. Dennis, D. Westcott and E. Schupp, eds. CABI Publishing.

Johnson, N.C., and C.A. Gehring. 2007. Mycorrhizas: Symbiotic mediators of rhizosphere and ecosystem processes. Pages 73-100, in: The Rhizosphere: An Ecological Perspective. Z. Cardon and J. Whitbeck, eds. Academic Press, New York.

Sthultz, C.M., C.A. Gehring, and T.G. Whitham. 2007. Shifts from competition to facilitation between a foundation tree and a pioneer shrub across spatial and temporal scales in a semi-arid woodland. NEW PHYTOLOGIST, 173:135-145. NEW PHYTOLOGIST 173:3-6


Johnson, N.C., J.D. Hoeksema, J.D. Bever, V.B. Chaudhary, C. Gehring, J. Klironomos, R. Koide, R.M. Miller, J. Moore, P. Moutoglis, M. Schwartz, S. Simard, W. Swenson, J. Umbanhowar, G. Wilson, and C. Zabinski. 2006. From Lilliput to Brobdingnag: Extending Models of Mycorrhizal Function across Scales. BIOSCIENCE 56(11):889-900.

Gehring, C.A., R.C. Mueller, and T.G. Whitham. 2006. Environmental and genetic effects on the formation of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in cottonwoods. OECOLOGIA 149:158-164.

Whitham, T.G., J.K. Bailey, J.A. Schweitzer, S.M. Shuster, R.K. Bangert, C.J. LeRoy, E.V. Lonsdorf, G.J. Allan, S.P. DiFazio, B.M. Potts, D.G. Fischer, C.A. Gehring, R.L. Lindroth, J.C. Marks, S.C. Hart, G.M., Wimp, and S.C. Wooley. 2006. A framework for community and ecosystem genetics: from genes to ecosystems. NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS 7:510-523.

McHugh, T.A. and C.A. Gehring. 2006. Belowground interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal shrubs decrease the performance of pinyon pine and the abundance of its ectomycorrhizas. NEW PHYTOLOGIST 171:171-178.

Schwartz, M.W., J.D. Hoeksema, C.A. Gehring, N.C. Johnson, J.N. Klironomos, L.K. Abbot, and A. Pringle. 2006. The promise and potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum. ECOLOGY LETTERS 9:501-515.

Hart, S.C., C.A. Gehring, P.C. Selmants, and R.J. Deckert. 2006. Carbon and nitrogen elemental and isotopic patterns in macrofungal sporocarps and trees in semi-arid forests of the southwestern United States. FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY 20:42-51.

Gehring, C.A., and J.H. Connell. 2006. The occurrence and potential importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tree seedlings of two Australian rainforests. MYCORRHIZA 16:89-98.

Mueller, R.C., and C.A. Gehring. 2006. Interactions between dwarf mistletoe infection and ectomycorrhizas of pinyon pine. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 94:276-284.


Mueller, R.C., T. Martinez, C.M. Sthultz, C.A. Gehring, and T.G. Whitham. 2005. The relationship between stem-galling wasps and the mycorrhizal colonization of Quercus turbinella. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 83:1349-1353.

Mueller, R.C., C.M. Scudder, M.E. Porter, R.T Trotter, III, C.A. Gehring, and T.G. Whitham. 2005. Differential mortality in response to severe drought: implications for long-term vegetation shifts. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 93:1085-1093.

Haskins, K.E., and C.A. Gehring. 2005. Evidence for mutualist limitation: the impacts of conspecific density on the mycorrhizal inoculum potential of woodland soils. OECOLOGIA 145:123-131.

Mueller, R.C., B.D. Wade, C.A. Gehring, and T.G. Whitham. 2005. Chronic herbivory negatively impacts cone and seed production, seed quality and seedling growth of susceptible pinyon pines. OECOLOGIA 143:558-565.

Bailey, J.K., R. Deckert, J.A. Schweitzer, B.J. Rehill, R.L. Lindroth, C.A. Gehring, and T.G. Whitham. 2005. Host plant genetics affect hidden ecological players: links among Populus, condensed tannins, and fungal endophyte infection. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 83:356-361.

Whitham, T.G., E. Lonsdorf, J.A. Schweitzer, J.K. Bailey, D.G. Fischer, S.M. Shuster, R.L. Lindroth, S.C. Hart, G.J. Allan, C.A. Gehring, P. Keim, B.M. Potts, J. Marks, B.J. Rehill, S.P. DiFazio, C.J. LeRoy, G.M. Wimp, and S. Woolbright. 2005. “All effects of a gene on the world”: Extended phenotypes, feedbacks and multi-level selection. ECOSCIENCE 12:5-7.

Connell, J. H., I. Debski, C. A. Gehring, L. Goldwasser, P. T. Green, K. E. Harms, P. Juniper, and T. C. Theimer. 2005. Dynamics of seedling recruitment in an Australian tropical rainforest. Pages 486-506 in E. Bermingham, C. W. Dick, and C. Moritz (editors). Tropical Rain Forests: Past, Present and Future, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 1004 pages


Haskins, K.E. and C. A. Gehring. 2004. Interactions with juniper alter the abundance and composition of pinyon pine ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. ECOLOGY 85:2687-2692.

Gehring, C. A. 2004. Seed reserves and light intensity affect the growth and mycorrhizal development of the seedlings of an Australian rain forest tree. JOURNAL OF TROPICAL ECOLOGY 20:345-349.

Swaty, R.L., R.J. Deckert, T.G. Whitham and C.A. Gehring. 2004. Ectomycorrhizal abundance and community composition shifts with drought: predictions from tree rings. ECOLOGY 85:1072-1084.

Haskins, K.E. and C.A. Gehring. 2004. Effects of burning slash on understory plant communities and arbuscular mycorrhizae in a semi-arid woodland. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY 41:379-388.


Frank, D.A., Gehring, C.A., Machut, L. and M. Philips. 2003. Soil community composition and the regulation of grazed temperate grassland. OECOLOGIA 442:603-609.

Kuske, C.R., Ticknor, L.O., Busch, J.D., Gehring, C.A., and T. G. Whitham. 2003. The pinyon rhizosphere, plant stress and herbivory affect the abundance of microbial decomposers in soils. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY 45:340-352.

Gehring, C.A. 2003. Growth responses to arbuscular mycorrhizae by rain forest seedlings vary with light intensity and tree species. PLANT ECOLOGY 167:127-139.

Whitham, T.G., Young, W.P., Martinsen, G.D., Gehring, C.A., Schweitzer, J.A., Shuster, S.M., Wimp, G.M., Fischer, D.G., Bailey, J.K., Lindroth, R.L, Woolbright, S. and C.R. Kuske. 2003. Community and ecosystem genetics: consequences of the extended phenotype. ECOLOGY 84:559-573.


Gehring, C.A., J.E. Wolf, and T.C. Theimer. 2002. Terrestrial vertebrates promote arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and inoculum potential in a rain forest soil. ECOLOGY LETTERS 5:540-548.

Gehring, C.A. and T. G. Whitham. 2002. Mycorrhiza-Herbivore Interactions: Population and Community Consequences. In M. van der Heijden and I. Sanders, eds. Mycorrhizal Ecology, ECOLOGICAL STUDIES 157:295-320.


Brown, J. H., T. G. Whitham, S. K. Morgan Ernest, and C. A. Gehring. 2001. Complex species interactions and the dynamics of ecological systems: long-term experiments. SCIENCE 293:643-649.

Theimer, T.C. and C.A. Gehring. 1999. Effects of a litter-disturbing bird species on tree seedling germination and survival in an Australian tropical rain forest. JOURNAL OF TROPICAL ECOLOGY 15:737-749.

Gehring, C.A., T.C. Theimer, T.G. Whitham and P. Keim. 1998. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pines growing in two environmental extremes. ECOLOGY 79:1562-1572.

Swaty, R.S., C.A. Gehring, M. VanErt, T.C. Theimer, P. Keim and T.G. Whitham. 1998. Temporal variation in temperature and rainfall predicts ectomycorrhizal colonization at two sites varying in soil nutrients and moisture. NEW PHYTOLOGIST 139:733-739.

Gehring, C.A., N.S. Cobb, and T.G. Whitham. 1997. Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines. AMERICAN NATURALIST 149:824-841.

Cobb, N.S., S. Mopper, C.A. Gehring, M. Caouette, K.M. Christensen and T.G. Whitham. 1997. Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels. OECOLOGIA 109:389-397.

Gehring, C.A., and T.G. Whitham. 1995. Duration of herbivore removal and environmental stress affect the ectomycorrhizae of pinyon pine. ECOLOGY 76:2118-2123.

Gehring, C.A., and T.G. Whitham. 1995. Environmental stress influences aboveground pest attack and mycorrhizal mutualism in pinyon-juniper woodlands: implications for management in the event of global warming, Pages 30-37 in: Desired future conditions for pinyon-juniper ecosystems (D. W. Shaw, E. F. Aldon, and C. LoSapio, eds.). USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Expt. Station, GTR RM-258.

Gehring, C.A., and T.G. Whitham. 1994. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizae on pinyon pines, Pinus edulis (Pinaceae), across extremes of soil type and herbivory. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 81:1509-1516.

Gehring, C.A., and T.G. Whitham. 1994. Interactions between aboveground herbivores and the mycorrhizal mutualists of plants. TRENDS IN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 9:251-255.

Del Vecchio, T.A., C.A. Gehring, N.S. Cobb, and T.G. Whitham. 1993. Negative effects of scale insect (Matsucoccus acalyptus) herbivory on the ectomycorrhizae of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis). ECOLOGY 74:2297-2302.

Gehring, C.A., and T.G. Whitham. 1992. Reduced mycorrhizae on Juniperus monosperma with mistletoe: the influence of environmental stress and tree gender on a plant parasite and a plant-fungal mutualism. OECOLOGIA 89:298-303.

Gehring, C.A., and T.G. Whitham. 1991. Herbivore-driven mycorrhizal mutualism in insect-susceptible pinyon pine. NATURE 353:556-557.