Tara Llewellyn

Heritability of Pinyon Pine Stomata

Pinyon Pine (Pinus edulis) is an essential part of the local ecosystems here in Flagstaff, and across larger areas in the southwest. Since climate change has projected to limit already scarce water resources, the Pinyon Pine trees will have to find a way to conserve water. One of the ways they could adapt is by altering their stomata traits. Stomata are microscopic pores that allow the plant to absorb carbon dioxide and release water into the atmosphere. The trees that needles were collected from are mother and father trees, and their offspring. The hypothesis is that there will be a strong correlation between the parent's and offspring's stomata traits and to see how these plants might evolve to increase their water efficiency. Using the new Digital Imaging System, pictures were taken of the needles and their stomata. The stomata size and density were then measured using a software program known as Image J.

Note: All specimens were from the species Pinus edulis. All images were taken above the specimens. One needle was always facing up and the other faces down so that both sides could be photographed. Cannon 5D 65mm 4x

Downloadable Files



Watch Video: Stomata Analysis in Image J

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  • Tara_Image1

    Image 1

    The mother is T22 and father is T11. It has six complete rows of stomata.                                                                                                                                              


  • Tara_Image2

    Image 2

    The mother is ISD28 and the father is PAT52. It has only four complete rows of stomata.                                                                                                                                

  • Tara_Image3

    Image 3

    The mother is SP40N and the father is SP40. It has only four complete rows of stomata and has a slight color and texture difference when compared to other individuals.