2002 Projects

2002 - Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Surveying

The purpose of this project was to make a topographic map of the south lawn on the Northern Arizona University campus and to gain basic land surveying and trigonometric skills. The methods involved setting up a theodolite, taking and reading horizontal and vertical angles, and creating a topographic map. The results demonstrated that it is possible to create an accurate topographic map using fundamental land surveying and trigonometric skills.

Mark Jackson, Dustin Kuczak, Craig Teller, Christina Weed, Carrie Whittaker

2002 - Grand Canyon
How the Grand Canyon May Have Formed?

In the literature, there are four contesting hypotheses proposed to explain the formation of the Grand Canyon and include antecedence, stream piracy, superposition, and lake overflow. We tested each of these hypotheses in a flume model to determine their ability to account for two morphological characteristics of the Grand Canyon. Lake overflow did successfully form the southward bend of the Colorado River across the Kaibab Plateau, and initially formed a Marble Canyon and Little Colorado River Gorge that met at Cedar Ridge, but over time Marble Canyon incision terminated.

Randall Clark, Jeremiah Davis, Marisol Guerrero, Savanah Lampert, Harrelsen Nez, David Sullivan, Lacy Willson, Zandra Zorilla

2002 - Wind energy
Wind Energy

The benefit of wind power is that it is a renewable source, opposed to fossil fuels. This investigation was done with a Picoturbine kit that can be modified for the most efficiency. Two wind turbines were tested and the maximum efficiency was one percent for one of the turbines compared to the available energy in the wind at 30 mph. The other turbine did not give good data and the results were thrown out. Wind power is an important resource that is important to study.

Melissa Bryant, Emanuel Gonzalez, Rowan Kaiser, Phil Nathaniel, Lindsay Pentico, Nicholas Tsosie

2002 - Web page
What Does it Take to Design a Web Page?

This project was focused on the redesign of the Four Corners Upward Bound web site. Java Script and HTML were incorporated, through Microsoft Front Page, in a massive restructuring in order to further promote ease of navigation, and clarity of organization. Finer details were added such as menus heading each page, and a new and more pleasing color scheme. The final result is intended to more accurately describe the program's mission of helping young adults to get a head start in a life of higher education.

Justine Chaco, Ryan Herder, Myron James, Benny Rangel, Kirby Yazzie, Lavonne Yazzie

2002 - Natural Attenuation
Natural Attenuation of Nutrients in a Fluvial System

The objectives of this study were to, characterize nutrient disposition along an effluent stream, explain any changes in nutrient concentrations along the effluent stream and identify potential long-term impacts of nutrient loading on the riparian ecosystem and the local aquifer. The measured values of nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus, and temperature decreased, while pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels increased, along the flowing reach of the channel. These changes are attributed to the abundant aquatic flora and algae observed in the channel.

John Holloway, Clayton Little, Daryn Melvin, Altoveda Tso, Henrietta Tsosie

2002 - Ice
Life Under Ice

This experiment was designed to simulate seasonal lake changes within a pond ecosystem and find how the pH levels and D.O. levels change in the winter verses the summer. PH levels and dissolved oxygen (D.O.) levels were tested and recorded daily for five days. The expected results were studied and analyzed prior to the experiment. In our simulated conditions the D.O. level steadily decreased during winter, however, the summer DO had no distinct pattern. The pH levels directly relate to the DO and this was apparent in our results.

Leland Begay, Shovan Cowboy, Venessa Jim, Tori Nielsen-Sanchez, Emilia Rangel, Scott Yost, Faelynn Zah 

2002 - Microbiology

The objective of this study was to quantify the number of microorganisms in the hamburger solutions using a viable count assay. In the experiment, a serial dilution process was used to dilute the different hamburger solutions. The solutions were put into different petri dishes, and the petri dishes were placed into an incubator. A viable count assay technique was used to count the number of colony forming units. In the end, results showed that store E had the smallest amount of colony forming units and therefore, had the smallest amount of microorganisms in the hamburger solution.

Monique Baldwin, Dimitri Davis, Leanne Lomayestewa, Petra Stedman, Savannah Valdez, Sondra Williams

2002 - Anxiety
Anxiety and Nervous System Reactivity

This study used a Between Groups Design to determine whether there is significant difference between groups with high trait and low trait anxiety on the selected autonomic measures of blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate, during baseline, stress, and relaxation conditions. Each subject was exposed to the three conditions, vital signs were assessed, and questionnaires followed looking at emotions, recent life, stress, and demographic characteristics were completed. The results from each of the two groups were compared to the results of the opposite group with independent sample t-tests.

Tawni Ahuero, Katrina Baca, Elizabeth Borja, Madeline Dishface, Kolenya Holly, Holly Priet, Samantha Shields, Erica Williams