Interpreting theRight to an Education as a Norm Referenced Adequacy Standard
current conceptions of educational adequacy emerged out of an era dominated by
equity based school resource litigation. During that time of transitioning
between successful litigation strategies, legal opinions provided clues as to
how future courts might view a norm-referenced approach to establishing an
adequacy standard - an approach that appreciates that for certain social goods,
equity and adequacy are inextricably connected. This article explores three
decades of school finance litigation and attempts to define the limits of the
right to an education, to glean how a norm referenced right to education
argument grows out of the historical legal framework.
The Potential Consequence of Using Value-Added Models to Evaluate Teachers
By: Zuchao Shen, Carlee Escue Simon, and Ben KelceyAbstract
Value-added models try to separate the contribution
of individual teachers or schools to students’ learning growth measured by standardized
test scores. There is a policy trend to
use value-added modeling to evaluate teachers because of its face validity and
superficial objectiveness. This article
investigates the potential long term consequences of making high-stakes
decisions based on value-added teacher evaluations. To investigate this question, we analyze the
micro-level effects on teacher effectiveness from the view of policy
implementation and the macro-level effects on teacher quality based on the
dynamic change of the teacher job market.
We argue that the establishment of a formal connection between
value-added teacher evaluations and high-stakes decision-making may compromise
teacher effectiveness and teacher quality.
We conclude that this connection between value-added measures and
high-stakes decisions should not be established when it compromises the
perception of a teacher’s position as a secure and decent job.